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Lab 3

March 4, 2013

If we already had the TCP/IP model, why was the more complicated OSI model created?
It allows for the development of communication layers with each layer providing its own specialized function within the structure. It became a way to standardize the rules of networking.

What does the abbreviation OSI stand for? Who originated it? When?
Open Systems Interconnection. Originated by the International Organization for Standardization based on the work of Charles Bachman. Developed in the early 1980s.

Determine the highest layer of operation for the following network devices: switch, hub, NIC, router, cable media, wireless access point. patch panel, repeater, bridge. Hubs, repeaters and cable media are on the physical layer. NICs, switches, patch panels and bridges and are on the data link layer. A wireless access point and router are on the network layer.

Source: class notes

What is another name for a physical address? How many bits do they require? When two machines attempt to transmit simultaneously on the same media segment, both messages become garbled and unintelligible. What is this condition normally called? The IP address is the physical address of a network device. It requires 32 bits in an IPv4 address. When two machines attempt to transmit on the same media segment and the messages get messed up, it’s called a collision.

What is your IP address? What is your MAC address?
My IP address is I can’t find my MAC address in the ipconfig window.

ARP  ends in a “P” so what does that often signify? What does ARP stand for & what does it do? Why is ping useful? What address is added to the arp table when you ping Why? ARP ends in P and most of the acronyms in networking stand for ‘protocol.’ ARP stands for address resolution protocol. The stackoverflow website states, “It’s a mapping mechanism for going between IP addresses and MAC addresses, on local networks. For connecting to a specific host a long distance away it’ll just be used for finding the MAC address of your default gateway (or routers more generally).”  Ping is a network debugging tool. When I ping I get back because that is what the IT guys named it.

If a packet comes in from another network, only a layer 3 (IP) address is known. But direct machine to machine communication only occurs at layer 2. What method is used to translate a known layer 3 address into an unknown layer 2 address? ARP translates a layer 3 address to a layer 2 address.

What are layer 3 gateway devices called? They use logical, or software encoded addresses. Many types of software addresses have been developed and used. What is the de-facto standard for logical addresses used today? How many bits do they require? Layer 3 gateway devices are called routers. Routers require 8 bits I think.


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